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CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NEIGHBORHOOD ATTACHMENT, COLLECTIVE EFFICACY AND OPEN SPACE QUALITY.

Abstract
By : Elif Kutay Karacor, Gozde Parlar

 
The decline in neighbourhoods resulting from globalization and technology, which trigger high rise buildings, has been discussed by several disciplines. Changes in life styles destroy not only traditional neighbourhoods but also open spaces. This situation leads to a decrease in both collective efficacy and neighbourhood attachment. Place attachment would play an important role in overcoming fear of crime and low security perception, which are the most substantial social problems of todayís cities. Therefore, it is important that urban designers, architects and landscape architects develop design policies that contribute to place attachment. The aim of this study is to develop models that explain neighbourhood attachment by collective efficacy, open space quality and socio-demographic variables. Kuzguncuk neighbourhood was chosen as a study area because of its unique character, socio-cultural diversity and the collective power that is due to the various social groups in the neighbourhood. This study seeks to answer the following question: Do open space quality, collective efficacy and socio-demographic factors predict neighbourhood attachment? We examined whether attachment to a neighborhood is associated with collective power and perception of open space quality by inhabitants. Therefore, neighbourhood attachment and its predictors were studied in this specific neighbourhood. Face to face interviews were conducted with 313 inhabitants using a stratified sampling method. Descriptive statistics and hierarchical linear modelling analyses were used to predict neighbourhood attachment. We found that collective efficacy, open space quality, place of birth and length of residence were predictors of neighbourhood attachment. Therefore, to prevent social problems, such as fear of crime, low security perception, loneliness and segregation, policy makers, designers, planners and social scientists should focus on neighbourhoods that have small communities. In conclusion, the quality perception of open spaces should be considered to increase neighbourhood attachment, and inhabitants should be encouraged to use public spaces in which social ties can develop.

Keywords: Collective Efficacy, Hierarchical Linear Regression, Kuzguncuk, Neighbourhood Attachment, Open Space Quality

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